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# Effects of Sloping Backfill   # How does the program alter the magnitude of the applied active pressure to account for the sloping backfill?

EFP: The program does not alter the magnitude of the applied active pressure to account for the sloping backfill.

Rankine: The Rankine equation includes the effects of backfill slope when calculating the active pressure.

Coulomb: The Coulomb equation includes the effects of backfill slope when calculating the active pressure.

# What backfill height is used when sloping backfill is specified?

EFP: The program uses the height of soil that occurs at the end of the heel.

Rankine: The program uses the height of soil that occurs at the end of the heel.

Coulomb: The program uses the height of soil that occurs at the end of the heel.

# At what angle does the active force act when sloping backfill is specified?

EFP: Vertical component is only calculated when the soil slope is non-zero.  To calculate the vertical component, the program uses the Rankine equation to back-calculate the angle of internal friction using soil slope, soil density and the user-entered equivalent fluid pressure (Ka).  From that angle it calculates the vertical component as tan(angle) * Ka.

Rankine: The active force acts at the angle specified for the sloping backfill.

Coulomb: The active force acts at phi/2 measured from the soil-surface of the wall.

# If there is a vertical component of active force, how is the program treating that component?

EFP: The vertical component is applied at the back of the heel when user selects to include it.

Rankine: The vertical component is applied at the back of the heel when user selects to include it.

Coulomb: The vertical component is applied at the back of the heel when user selects to include it.

# Is there anything that the user should be doing manually to adjust the input to account for the sloping backfill?

EFP: The user must adjust the magnitude of the EFP.

Rankine: No additional action is required on the part of the user.

Coulomb: No additional action is required on the part of the user.